Book 2 Identity and Values: Study Tools

Chapter 2 –¬†Principles of Reason

Vocabulary (click on the word for the definition)


beneficience – To do good for others.


maleficence – To do evil or harm to someone else.


marginalized – To be pushed off to the side and not given the same rights and protections as the rest of society. Minorities, refugees, elderly persons, dying persons, and unborn human beings are examples of frequently marginalized people.

objective evidence

objective evidence – Evidence that can be verified by anyone who is able to use their five senses, or by anyone who is intelligent enough to follow an argument.


principle – A basic or fundamental truth that is used to support a line of reasoning, a belief, or a way of behaving.

principles of reason

principles of reason – Principles that help us to logically arrive at what is true.

social ethical issue

social ethical issue – An ethical issue caused by the actions (or failure to act) of people or societies; includes issues like world hunger, war, prejudice, international poverty, and the oppresion of marginalized people.

Subjective evidence

Subjective evidence – evidence that can be verified only by the individual having the experience


universal – Relating to every person, in every place, at every time.

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